Selecionamos artigos com bons níveis de evidência e disponíveis em bases de dados de revistas científicas com maiores exigências para a indexação. Aqui você poderá encontrar artigos sobre Fitoterapia  e Práticas Integrativas e Complementares.


Nossa revisão utilizou diversos fatores de inclusão e exclusão, selecionando, preferencialmente, estudos de Meta-análise, Revisão Sistemática ou Estudos Clínicos duplo-cego e randomizados. Além disso, buscamos artigos publicados entre 2016 e 2018, o que permitiu avaliar melhor a presença de retratações, erratas, cartas ao editor, revistas predatórias, entre outros. A avaliação da literatura é um processo contínuo e o tempo agrega valor para algumas publicações que são destacadas pela comunidade científica e clínicos.

Você precisa de uma revisão mais detalhada da literatura científica para a sua prática clínica ou visitação médica? Entre em contato para solicitar um serviço personalizado.



Phytother Res. 2018

Sarris J.

Herbal medicines in the treatment of psychiatric disorders: 10-year updated review.

Abstract This paper provides a 10-year update of the 2007 systematic review of herbal medicines studied in a broad range of psychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive, seasonal affective, bipolar, psychotic, phobic, somatoform, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorders. Ovid Medline, PubMed, and the Cochrane Library were searched for herbal medicines with both pharmacological and clinical evidence of psychotropic activity. This updated review now covers clinical trial evidence for 24 herbal medicines in 11 psychiatric disorders. High-quality evidence was found to exist for the use of Piper methysticum (Kava), Passiflora spp. (passionflower) and Galphimia glauca (galphimia) for anxiety disorders; and Hypericum perforatum (St John's wort) and Crocus sativus (saffron) for major depressive disorder. Other encouraging herbal medicines with preliminary evidence include Curcuma longa (turmeric) in depression, Withania somnifera (ashwagandha) in affective disorders, and Ginkgo biloba (ginkgo) as an adjunctive treatment in Schizophrenia. Although depression and anxiety are commonly researched, many other mental disorders still require further prospective investigation. Although the previous review suggested increasing the adjunctive study of select herbal medicines with pharmaceuticals, this was still only found to sparingly occur in research designs. Aside from this, future focus should involve the incorporation of more biomarker analysis, in particular pharmacogenomics, to determine genetic factors moderating response to herbal medicines. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Transtornos Mentais

Phytother Res. 2018

Yeung KS, Hernandez M, Mao JJ, Haviland I, Gubili J.

Herbal medicine for depression and anxiety: A systematic review with assessment of potential psycho-oncologic relevance.

Abstract Anxiety and depression are prevalent among cancer patients, with significant negative impact. Many patients prefer herbs for symptom relief to conventional medications which have limited efficacy/side effects. We identified single-herb medicines that may warrant further study in cancer patients. Our search included PubMed, Allied and Complementary Medicine, Embase, and Cochrane databases, selecting only single-herb randomized controlled trials between 1996 and 2016 in any population for data extraction, excluding herbs with known potential for interactions with cancer treatments. One hundred articles involving 38 botanicals met our criteria. Among herbs most studied (≥6 randomized controlled trials each), lavender, passionflower, and saffron produced benefits comparable to standard anxiolytics and antidepressants. Black cohosh, chamomile, and chasteberry are also promising. Anxiety or depressive symptoms were measured in all studies, but not always as primary endpoints. Overall, 45% of studies reported positive findings with fewer adverse effects compared with conventional medications. Based on available data, black cohosh, chamomile, chasteberry, lavender, passionflower, and saffron appear useful in mitigating anxiety or depression with favorable risk-benefit profiles compared to standard treatments. These may benefit cancer patients by minimizing medication load and accompanying side effects. However, well-designed larger clinical trials are needed before these herbs can be recommended and to further assess their psycho-oncologic relevance. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Neoplasias; Antidepressivos; Ansiolíticos

Curr Neuropharmacol. 2015

Liu L, Liu C, Wang Y, Wang P, Li Y, Li B.

Herbal Medicine for Anxiety, Depression and Insomnia.

Abstract The prevalence and comorbidity of psychiatric disorders such as depression, anxiety and insomnia are very common. These well-known forms of psychiatric disorders have been affecting many people from all around the world. Herb alone, as well as herbal formula, is commonly prescribed for the therapies of mental illnesses. Since various adverse events of western medication exist, the number of people who use herbs to benefit their health is increasing. Over the past decades, the exploration in the area of herbal psychopharmacology has received much attention. Literatures showed a variety of herbal mechanisms of action used for the therapy of depression, anxiety and insomnia, involving reuptake of monoamines, affecting neuroreceptor binding and channel transporter activity, modulating neuronal communication or hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis (HPA) etc. Nonetheless, a systematic review on herbal pharmacology in depression, anxiety and insomnia is still lacking. This review has been performed to further identify modes of action of different herbal medicine, and thus provides useful information for the application of herbal medicine.

Depressão; Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono

Phytother Res. 2007

Sarris J.

Herbal medicines in the treatment of psychiatric disorders: a systematic review.

Abstract This paper reports a critical review of 27 herbal medicines and formulas in treating a broad range of psychiatric disorders (in addition to anxiety and depression), including obsessive-compulsive, seasonal affective, bipolar depressive, psychotic, phobic and somatoform disorders. Ovid Medline, Pubmed and the Cochrane Library were searched for pharmacological and clinical evidence of herbal medicines with psychotropic activity. A forward search of later citations was also conducted. Whilst substantial high-quality evidence exists for the use of kava and St John's wort in the treatment of anxiety and depression respectively, currently there is insufficient robust clinical evidence for the use of many other herbal medicines in psychiatric disorders. Phytotherapies which potentially have significant use in psychiatry, and urgently require more research are Rhodiola rosea (roseroot) and Crocus sativus (saffron) for depression; Passiflora incarnata (passionflower), Scutellaria lateriflora (scullcap) and Zizyphus jujuba (sour date) for anxiety disorders; and Piper methysticum (kava) for phobic, panic and obsessive-compulsive disorders. While depression and anxiety are commonly researched, the efficacy of herbal medicines in other mental disorders requires attention. The review addresses current issues in herbal psychotherapy: herbal safety, future areas of application, the relationship of herbal medicine with pharmaceuticals and the potential prescriptive integration of phytomedicines with synthetic psychotropic medicines. Particular attention is given to clinical and safety issues with St John's wort and kava. (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Transtornos Mentais

Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012

Flower A, Liu JP, Lewith G, Little P, Li Q.

Chinese herbal medicine for endometriosis.

Abstract BACKGROUND: Endometriosis is characterized by the presence of tissue that is morphologically and biologically similar to normal endometrium in locations outside the uterus. Surgical and hormonal treatment of endometriosis have unpleasant side effects and high rates of relapse. In China, treatment of endometriosis using Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) is routine and considerable research into the role of CHM in alleviating pain, promoting fertility, and preventing relapse has taken place.This review is an update of a previous review published in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2009, issue No 3. OBJECTIVES: To review the effectiveness and safety of CHM in alleviating endometriosis-related pain and infertility. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Menstrual Disorders and Subfertility Group Trials Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library) and the following English language electronic databases (from their inception to 31/10/2011): MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, CINAHL, and NLH.We also searched Chinese language electronic databases: Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Chinese Sci & Tech Journals (VIP), Traditional Chinese Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System (TCMLARS), and Chinese Medical Current Contents (CMCC). SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) involving CHM versus placebo, biomedical treatment, another CHM intervention; or CHM plus biomedical treatment versus biomedical treatment were selected. Only trials with confirmed randomisation procedures and laparoscopic diagnosis of endometriosis were included. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Risk of bias assessment, and data extraction and analysis were performed independently by three review authors. Data were combined for meta-analysis using relative risk (RR) for dichotomous data. A fixed-effect statistical model was used, where appropriate. Data not suitable for meta-analysis were presented as descriptive data. MAIN RESULTS: Two Chinese RCTs involving 158 women were included in this review. Both these trials described adequate methodology. Neither trial compared CHM with placebo treatment.There was no evidence of a significant difference in rates of symptomatic relief between CHM and gestrinone administered subsequent to laparoscopic surgery (95.65% versus 93.87%; risk ratio (RR) 1.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.93 to 1.12, one RCT). The intention-to-treat analysis also showed no significant difference between the groups (RR 1.04, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.18). There was no significant difference between the CHM and gestrinone groups with regard to the total pregnancy rate (69.6% versus 59.1%; RR 1.18, 95% CI 0.87 to 1.59, one RCT).CHM administered orally and then in conjunction with a herbal enema resulted in a greater proportion of women obtaining symptomatic relief than with danazol (RR 5.06, 95% CI 1.28 to 20.05; RR 5.63, 95% CI 1.47 to 21.54, respectively). Overall, 100% of women in all the groups showed some improvement in their symptoms.Oral plus enema administration of CHM showed a greater reduction in average dysmenorrhoea pain scores than did danazol (mean difference (MD) -2.90, 95% CI -4.55 to -1.25; P < 0.01). Combined oral and enema administration of CHM also showed a greater improvement measured as the disappearance or shrinkage of adnexal masses than with danazol (RR 1.70, 95% CI 1.04 to 2.78). For lumbosacral pain, rectal discomfort, or vaginal nodules tenderness, there was no significant difference between CHM and danazol. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Post-surgical administration of CHM may have comparable benefits to gestrinone but with fewer side effects. Oral CHM may have a better overall treatment effect than danazol; it may be more effective in relieving dysmenorrhoea and shrinking adnexal masses when used in conjunction with a CHM enema. However, more rigorous research is required to accurately assess the potential role of CHM in treating endometriosis. Update of Chinese herbal medicine for endometriosis. [Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009]


Phytomedicine. 2018

Qu L, Zou W, Wang Y, Wang M.

European regulation model for herbal medicine: The assessment of the EU monograph and the safety and efficacy evaluation in marketing authorization or registration in Member States.

BACKGROUND: The European Union (EU) has created a regulatory framework for herbal medicinal products (HMPs) since the enforcement of Directive 2004/24/EC. Substantial achievements have been made, with 1719 traditional use marketing registrations (TURs) and 859 well-established use marketing authorizations (WEU-MAs) for HMPs granted by the end of 2016. Apparently, the European regulation model has worked out well and in that the essential feature is the use of EU herbal monographs into those granted WEU-MAs and TURs. PURPOSE: A systematic analysis of the European regulation model for HMPs and the EU herbal monograph's part of this model are undertaken to assist understanding of the EU legislation particularly for interested parties those from outside EU area, and afterwards, to help in decision-making in the HMPs registration in European market for pharmaceutical companies, as well as in the establishment of legislation in countries with strong traditional use of herbal remedies. METHODS: A search of PubMed, ScienceDirect, the European Medicines Agency website and the Heads of Medicines Agencies website was conducted (up to December 2017), and the available information on regulation of HMPs in the EU was collected. RESULTS: The evaluation of applications by National Competent Authorities (NCAs) at a national level together with the assessment of EU monographs by the Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products (HMPC) at the European level constitute the European regulation framework for HMPs. As the scientific opinion about the safety and efficacy of HMPs from HMPC, the EU herbal monographs have been given a constitutional-based meaning to the TURs and WEU-MAs of HMPs and play a supportive function in the marketing procedure in Member States. CONCLUSION: The European framework has provided a powerful regulation model for harmonization of scientific assessment and facilitation of product marketing. For the pharmaceutical industries particularly those outside the EU, optimal use of the EU herbal monograph in their marketing procedure in Europe could be of great benefit. Furthermore, this model is well worth learning from for other countries and regions outside the EU to help the establishment of legislation in countries with strong traditional use of herbal remedies and contribute to the safe use of traditional herbal medicine.

Legislação Sanitária

Cien Saude Colet. 2019

Cardoso BS, Amaral VCS.

[The use of phytotherapy during pregnancy: a global overview]

Este artigo tem como objetivo realizar uma revisão integrativa da literatura sobre a prevalência do uso da fitoterapia durante a gestação. Foi realizado um levantamento nas bases de dados SciELO, Medline e Science Direct com os descritores “herbal and pregnancy”, “plant and gestation” e seus correspondentes em português: “planta e gestação”; “erva e gravidez”. Dentre os artigos publicados entre 2000 e 2015, 46 estudos clínicos preencheram os critérios de inclusão e exclusão e foram selecionados para esta revisão. Destes, 11 foram realizados na Europa, 10 na Ásia, 5 na África, 3 na Oceania, 16 na América e, apenas um, foi de caráter multinacional. Na maioria dos estudos (67,39%) o método utilizado foi o de entrevista. A prevalência do uso da fitoterapia descrita nas publicações foi muito variável. Ademais, a camomila, o gengibre, o alho, a menta e a equinácea foram as espécies mais utilizadas pelas gestantes. Os dados mostram que o uso da fitoterapia durante a gestação é uma prática disseminada entre mulheres de todo o mundo, independentemente das variáveis socioeconômicas e étnico-culturais que eventualmente possam distingui-las.


Rev Esc Enferm USP. 2016

Kurebayashi LF, Turrini RN, Kuba G, Shimizu MH, Takiguch RS.

Chinese phytotherapy to reduce stress, anxiety and improve quality of life: randomized controlled trial.

OBJETIVO Avaliar o efeito da fitoterapia chinesa na redução de níveis de estresse, ansiedade e melhoria de qualidade de vida. MÉTODO Ensaio clínico randomizado duplo-cego, com 89 voluntários divididos em três grupos: Controle (sem intervenção), Placebo e Fitoterapia. Foi realizado em 2015, com adultos saudáveis atendidos no Instituto de Terapia Integrada e Oriental, São Paulo. Foram avaliados no baseline e, após 3 semanas,pela Lista de Sintomas de Stress (LSS), Inventário de Ansiedade-Traço e Estado e o SF12v2 de qualidade de vida. Os grupos de intervenção receberam um frasco de 50 ml de placebo ou da fórmula Gan Mai Da Zao (GMDZ). RESULTADOS Segundo ANOVA, houve diferença (p=0,025) no pós-tratamento de estresse (LSS2). E a diferença foi entre os grupos Controle e Fitoterapia, de acordo com o post hocde Tukey (p=0,022). Não houve diferenças nos níveis de ansiedade-estado e domínio físico e mental do SF12v2. CONCLUSÃO A fórmula GMDZ reduziu os níveis de estresse, mas são necessários mais estudos com amostra significativa, com reavaliação da posologia e um período maior de tratamento para confirmar e ampliar os resultados. Registro Brasileiro de Ensaios Clínicos: RBR-28s4hz. Descritores Fitoterapia; Estresse Psicológico; Ansiedade; Medicina Tradicional Chinesa

Estresse; Ansiedade

Acta Med Port. 2010

Mendes E, Herdeiro MT, Pimentel F.

[The use of herbal medicine therapies by cancer patients]

Em Portugal, o uso das medicinas e das terapêuticas complementares e alternativas está a crescer entre os doentes oncológicos, o que contribui para um elevado risco de interacções indesejáveis, em grande parte porque muitos dos medicamentos utilizados pelos doentes oncológicos possuem estreitas margens terapêuticas. Foi efectuada uma pesquisa bibliográfica da informação de forma a avaliar, na Europa e Estados Unidos, quais as plantas mais utilizadas pelos doentes oncológicos e qual o risco de interacção entre estas e a medicação que, normalmente, o doente oncológico toma. A informação recolhida revela a existência de um grau de interacção planta-medicamento suficientemente forte para que os doentes sujeitos a tratamentos antineoplásicos não devam utilizar produtos à base de plantas concomitantemente. Tal facto, vem alertar para a extrema importância de se ter conhecimento de quais as terapêuticas e os produtos à base de plantas mais utilizados pelos doentes oncológicos em Portugal assim como a necessidade de se avaliarem as atitudes e o conhecimento que os profissionais de saúde que os acompanham têm sobre este tema.

Interações Medicamentosas; Câncer

Rev Esp Salud Publica. 2018

Zamora Zamora F, Martínez Galiano JM, Gaforio Martínez JJ, Delgado Rodríguez M.

[Olive Oil and Body Weight. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials].

Fundamentos: El aceite de oliva, grasa fundamental de la dieta mediterránea, ha contribuido a un descenso de la obesidad en diversos estudios epidemiológicos. Se desconoce si por sí mismo puede disminuir el peso con independencia de la dieta utilizada. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la eficacia del aceite de oliva en la reducción ponderal. Métodos: Revisión sistemática con metaanálisis de ensayos controlados aleatorizados (ECA) de al menos 12 semanas de intervención sobre adultos sin eventos cardiovasculares previos, para estimar el efecto de una dieta enriquecida con aceite de oliva sobre el peso, cintura e índice de masa corporal. La búsqueda se realizó en PubMed, Embase, Cochrane plus, Web of Science, Ovid, Scopus, Biblioteca Virtual en Salud (BVS), Tesis Doctorales en Red (TDR), hasta diciembre de 2016. No se restringió idioma, sexo ni patología de base. Utilizamos Stata14 SE para la síntesis de datos. Resultados: Se identificaron 490 estudios, de ellos sólo 11 estudios cumplieron los criterios de inclusión. Una dieta enriquecida con aceite de oliva redujo más el peso que una dieta control -0,92 kg, IC 95% (-1,16,- 0,67), p heterogeneidad =0,1; disminuyó la cintura en -0,60 cm, IC 95% ( -1,17,-0,04), p heterogeneidad = 0,6; y descendió el IMC en -0,90, IC 95% (-0,91, -0,88), p heterogeneidad < 0,001. El efecto favorable fue cuando el aceite se suplementó de forma líquida y no con cápsulas. Conclusiones: Una dieta enriquecida con aceite de oliva puede ser una importante estrategia de control ponderal en personas sin eventos cardiovasculares previos.

Azeite de Oliva; Obesidade

Phytother Res. 2018

Panahi Y, Kianpour P, Mohtashami R, Atkin SL, Butler AE, Jafari R, Badeli R, Sahebkar A.

Efficacy of artichoke leaf extract in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: A pilot double-blind randomized controlled trial.

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease worldwide and is potentially treatable, though there are few therapeutic agents available. Artichoke leaf extract (ALE) has shown potential as a hepatoprotective agent. This study sought to determine if ALE had therapeutic utility in patients with established NAFLD. In this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled parallel-group trial, 100 subjects with ultrasound-diagnosed NAFLD were randomized to either ALE 600 mg daily or placebo for a 2-month period. NAFLD response was assessed by liver ultrasound and serological markers including the aspartate aminotransferase (AST)/alanine aminotransferase (ALT) ratio and AST to platelet ratio index (APRI) score. Ninety patients completed the study (49 ALE and 41 placebo) with no side effects reported. ALE treatment compared with placebo: Doppler sonography showed increased hepatic vein flow (p < .001), reduced portal vein diameter (p < .001) and liver size (p < .001), reduction in serum ALT (p < .001) and AST (p < .001) levels, improvement in AST/ALT ratio and APRI scores (p < .01), and reduction in total bilirubin. ALE supplementation reduced total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride concentrations (p = .01). This study has shown beneficial effects of ALE supplementation on both ultrasound liver parameters and liver serum parameters (ALT, AST, APRI ratio, and total bilirubin) in patients with NAFLD. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. KEYWORDS: artichoke leaf extract (ALE); non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); phytochemical

Cynara scolymus L.; Síndrome Metabólica

Phytother Res. 2018

Rezazadeh K, Rahmati-Yamchi M, Mohammadnejad L, Ebrahimi-Mameghani M, Delazar A.

Effects of artichoke leaf extract supplementation on metabolic parameters in women with metabolic syndrome: Influence of TCF7L2-rs7903146 and FTO-rs9939609 polymorphisms.

The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a multicomponent condition with a complex etiology involving genetic and environmental factors. Artichoke leaf extract (ALE) has shown favorable effects on lipid and glucose metabolism. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of ALE supplementation on metabolic parameters in women with MetS, using a nutrigenetics approach. In this double-blind randomized clinical trial, 50 women (aged 20-50 years) with MetS were randomly allocated into the two groups: "ALE group" (received 1,800 mg hydroalcoholic extract of artichoke as four tablets per day) and "placebo group" (received placebo consisted of corn starch, lactose, and avicel as four tablets per day) for 12 weeks. The biochemical and anthropometric parameters were determined before and after the intervention. The FTO-rs9939609 and the TCF7L2-rs7903146 polymorphisms were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. In carriers of A allele of the FTO-rs9939609, ALE supplementation resulted in a statistically significant decrease in serum triglyceride level compared with placebo (-19.11% vs. 10.83%; p < .05), with no other significant differences between the two groups. The TCF7L2-rs7903146 polymorphism showed no interaction with response to ALE (p > .05). These findings suggest that ALE supplementation may improve serum triglyceride level in A allele genotype of FTO-rs9939609 polymorphism in women with MetS. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. KEYWORDS: FTO; TCF7L2; artichoke leaf extract; metabolic syndrome; nutrigenetics

Cynara scolymus L.; Síndrome Metabólica

Food Funct. 2016

Elsebai MF, Abass K, Hakkola J, Atawia AR, Farag MA.

The wild Egyptian artichoke as a promising functional food for the treatment of hepatitis C virus as revealed via UPLC-MS and clinical trials.

Infection by hepatitis C virus (HCV) and its subsequent complications are a major cause of mortality worldwide. The water extract of the wild Egyptian artichoke (WEA) (Cynara cardunculus L. var. sylvestris (Lam.) Fiori) leaves is a freely available herbal product that is used for treatment of HCV-infection complications such as jaundice and ascites. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether WEA exhibits activity against HCV, identify bioactive chemicals in its extract and to tentatively examine the potential inhibitory interactions of WEA with human drug-metabolizing enzymes. The current pilot clinical trial revealed that the water extract of a WEA plant decreased the HCV viral load below the detection level in 12 out of 15 patients. Furthermore, the liver enzymes ALT and AST, as well as the level of bilirubin were normalized. The total WEA extract inhibited CYP2B6 (OH-BUP) and CYP2C19 (5-OH-OME) with high affinity, IC50 ∼ 20 μg ml(-1), while moderate inhibitory interactions were observed for CYP1A2, CYP2D6, CYP2E1 and CYP3A4. Results presented herein suggest that the WEA exhibits strong antiviral activity against HCV and may be useful for its treatment. Compared to the artichoke product "Hepar SL Forte(®)", WEA was found to be more enriched in sesquiterpenes versus the abundance of phenolic compounds, especially flavonoids in Hepar SL Forte(®) as revealed via UPLC-MS analysis coupled to chemometrics.

Cynara scolymus L.; Hepatite C

Phytother Res. 2018

Awaad AA, El-Meligy RM, Zain GM, Safhi AA, Al Qurain NA, Almoqren SS, Zain YM, Sesh Adri VD, Al-Saikhan FI.

Experimental and clinical antihypertensive activity of Matricaria chamomilla extracts and their angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory activity.

Three different extracts of Matricaria chamomilla L. were evaluated for their antihypertensive activity, these extracts were total alcohol extract (Extract 1), oil extracted (Extract 2), and water lifted after oil extraction (Extract 3). Quantitative and Qualitative analyses were carried out for all extracts. The 3 extracts were proved to be safe for human use. A single oral administration of the plant extracts (200 mg/kg) decreases both systolic and diastolic blood pressure of normotensive rats after 1, 1.5, and 2 hr. Furthermore, groups treated with the evaluated extracts (100 & 200 mg/kg) or Captopril (20 mg/kg) showed a significant reduction in the elevated blood pressure and heart rate. Extract 3 showed the most antihypertensive activity. Serum biochemical parameters and lipid profile levels of treated groups were improved in comparison with induced-hypertensive untreated rats. In evaluation of oxidative damage parameters Glutathione and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in some organs, the investigated extracts or captopril restored the amount of reduced Glutathione in tissues in addition to an increase in the activity of the SOD after a significant depletion of SOD activity. In the clinical study, there was a significant dose dependent decrease in Systolic blood pressure, Diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate compared with their basal values in both normotensive and hypertensive human volunteers after oral administration of Matricaria chamomilla beverages. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. KEYWORDS: GSH; SOD; angiotensin-converting enzyme; biochemical parameters; blood pressure; heart rate; normotensive; qualitative analysis; quantitative determination

Matricaria chamomilla L.; Hipertensão

J Obstet Gynaecol. 2018

Saghafi N, Rhkhshandeh H, Pourmoghadam N, Pourali L, Ghazanfarpour M, Behrooznia A, Vafisani F.

Effectiveness of Matricaria chamomilla (chamomile) extract on pain control of cyclic mastalgia: a double-blind randomised controlled trial.

Breast pain (mastalgia) often precedes menstrual period, which is of mild to moderate severity. This study was performed to determine the effectiveness of chamomile on pain control of cyclic mastalgia. This double-blind randomised controlled clinical trial was conducted on 60 patients with mastalgia referred to the breast clinic of an academic hospital, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. The patients were randomly allocated into two groups: chamomile (n = 30) and placebo (n = 30). Primary outcomes were: (1) assessment of the visual analogue scale (VAS) and (2) assessment of the breast pain chart (BPC) 8 weeks after initial intervention. All the participants were asked to take drops three times a day each time having five drops for two consecutive months. Significant decline was observed in both the groups (chamomile and placebo) after two months (p < .0001 and p = .048, respectively) compared to baseline and between two groups (p = .007). Chamomile was a well-tolerated, secure and effective drug for treating women with mild to moderate mastalgia. Impact statement What is already known on this subject: Breast pain (mastalgia) is a common chief complaint reported by many women. The 'cyclic' type, which usually occurs monthly prior to the onset of menstrual period, is of moderate severity. In 30% of the cases, mastalgia is severe and disturbs normal life, leading to sexual, physical, and social dysfunction as well as depression and anxiety. The cause of cyclical mastalgia is not known, but given the fact that it begins in the luteal phase, it can be caused by hormonal stimulation. A variety of therapies have been recommended. Such therapies include prescription of vitamin B2, B6, E and C, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), diuretics, thyroxin, progesterone, Tamoxifen, Danazol, Bromocriptine and plant extracts like vitexagnus castus, evening primrose oil (EPO). However, given the side effects of hormonal treatment, many women have developed a propensity towards the use of herbal medicine. What do the results of this study add: Chamomile presents a safe, well-tolerated and effective treatment for women with moderate mastalgia. What are the implications of these finding for clinical practice and/or further research: Considering that Danazol, Bromocriptine and Tamoxifen are standard treatments for mastalgia, it would be helpful to carry out a trial study to compare the effect of chamomile extract versus standard treatments. The physicians can prescribe chamomile as a safe alternative treatment for mastalgia. KEYWORDS: Matricaria chamomilla; breast pain; mastalgia

Matricaria chamomilla L. Mastodinia

J Oral Sci. 2016

Goes P, Dutra CS, Lisboa MR, Gondim DV, Leitão R, Brito GA, Rego RO.

Clinical efficacy of a 1% Matricaria chamomile L. mouthwash and 0.12% chlorhexidine for gingivitis control in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances.

This pilot study evaluated the clinical efficacy of a mouthwash containing 1% Matricaria chamomilla L. (MTC) extract in reducing gingival inflammation and plaque formation in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study enrolled a total of 30 males and females (age, 10-40 years) with fixed orthodontic appliances and a minimum of 20 natural teeth. The participants were allocated to three groups (n = 10 each) and asked to rinse with 15 mL of a placebo, 0.12% chlorhexidine (CHX), or 1% MTC mouthwash, immediately after brushing for 1 min, in the morning and evening, for 15 days. Data (mean ± SD) on visible plaque index (VPI) and gingival bleeding index (GBI) were recorded on days 1 and 15. The placebo group exhibited increases in VPI and GBI (10.2% and 23.1%, respectively) from day 1 to day 15. As compared with placebo, VPI and GBI significantly decreased in the MTC group (-25.6% and -29.9%, respectively) and the CHX group (-39.9% and -32.0%, respectively). In summary, MTC reduced biofilm accumulation and gingival bleeding in patients with gingivitis, probably because of its antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities.(J Oral Sci 58, 569-574, 2016).

Matricaria chamomilla L.; Gengivite

Complement Ther Med. 2016

Tavakoli Ardakani M, Ghassemi S, Mehdizadeh M, Mojab F, Salamzadeh J, Ghassemi S, Hajifathali A.

Evaluating the effect of Matricaria recutita and Mentha piperita herbal mouthwash on management of oral mucositis in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: A randomized, double blind, placebo controlled clinical trial.

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of Matricaria recutita and Mentha piperita on oral mucositis (OM) in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). DESIGN: Randomized double blind placebo controlled clinical trial. SETTING: Faculty of Pharmacy, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, and Bone Marrow Transplantation Center at Taleghani Teaching Hospital, Tehran, Iran. PARTICIPANTS: Sixty patients undergoing HSCT were randomly assigned to two groups: placebo (n=33), and herbal mouthwash group (n=27). INTERVENTIONS: All patients received the mouthwash one week before HSCT and were instructed to use it three times daily for at least 30s. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: OM was graded using National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria (NCI-CTC) scale (grade 0-5). The Numerical Rating Scale (NRS: 0-10 scale) measured the severity of OM symptoms. RESULTS: The duration, maximum and average daily grade of OM were significantly reduced in the treatment group (P<0.05). The use of herbal mouthwash led to significant improvements in pain intensity (P=0.009), dryness (P=0.04) and dysphagia (P=0.009). Other significant results included: reduced need for complementary medications (P=0.03), narcotic analgesics (P=0.047), total parenteral nutrition (TPN) (P=0.02) and the duration of TPN (P=0.03). CONCLUSION: This study shows that patients receiving the herbal mouthwash experienced less complications and symptoms associated with OM. In summary, it seems that the use of our prepared herbal mouthwash is beneficial for patients undergoing HSCT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. KEYWORDS: Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation; Herbal preparation; Matricaria recutita; Mentha piperita; Mouthwash; Oral mucositis

Matricaria chamomilla L. Estomatite

J Evid Based Complementary Altern Med. 2017

Sharifi H, Minaie MB, Qasemzadeh MJ, Ataei N, Gharehbeglou M, Heydari M.

Topical use of Matricaria recutita L (Chamomile) Oil in the Treatment of Monosymptomatic Enuresis in Children: A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial.

AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of topical use of Matricaria recutita L oil in the treatment of enuresis in children. METHODS: Eighty patients diagnosed as monosymptomatic nocturnal or daytime enuresis were allocated to receive Matricaria recutita L (chamomile) oil or placebo topically for 6 weeks in a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial with a parallel design. Patients were evaluated prior to and following 8 weeks of the intervention in terms of frequency of enuresis and any observed adverse events. RESULTS: The mean frequency of enuresis at the first, second, and third 2 weeks was lower in the intervention group compared with the placebo group, and the differences were statistically significant (P < .001, P = .03, and P < .001, respectively). There was no report of any adverse event in the study groups. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study showed that the topical use of (chamomile) oil can decrease the frequency of nocturia in children with monosymptomatic nocturnal or daytime enuresis. © The Author(s) 2015. KEYWORDS: Matricaria recutita; enuresis; herbal medicine; traditional medicine; urinary incontinence

Matricaria chamomilla L.; Enurese

BMC Complement Altern Med. 2016

Thaptimthong T, Kasemsuk T, Sibmooh N, Unchern S.

Platelet inhibitory effects of juices from Pachyrhizus erosus L. root and Psidium guajava L. fruit: a randomized controlled trial in healthy volunteers.

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to investigate cardiovascular benefits of juices obtained from two commonly consumed fruits in Thailand, Pachyrhizus erosus, L. (yam bean) and Psidium guajava, L. (guava), by examining their acute cardiovascular effects in healthy volunteers. Possible involvements of the dietary nitrate on their effects were investigated as well. METHOD: Thirty healthy volunteers were randomly divided into three groups of 10 subjects per group and each group was allocated to drink 500 ml of freshly prepared yam bean root juice, guava fruit juice, or water. Systemic nitrate and nitrite concentrations, heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, serum K(+) concentrations, ex vivo platelet aggregation, and plasma cGMP concentrations were monitored at the baseline and at various time points after the intake of juices or water. Data were compared by repeated measures ANOVA. RESULTS: Following the ingestion of both yam bean root juice and guava fruit juice, collagen-induced but not ADP-induced platelet aggregation was attenuated. Ingestion of yam bean root juice increased systemic nitrate and nitrite concentrations whereby elevated nitrite concentrations correlated with the extent of inhibiting collagen-induced platelet aggregation. In addition, positive correlation between systemic nitrite and plasma cGMP concentrations and negative correlation between plasma cGMP concentrations and the extent of collagen-induced platelet aggregation were revealed. Nevertheless, yam bean root juice reduced only diastolic blood pressure while guava fruit juice reduced heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure. CONCLUSION: The present study has illustrated, for the first time, acute inhibitory effects of yam bean root juice and guava fruit juice on ex vivo collagen-induced platelet aggregation in healthy subjects. Dietary nitrate was shown to underlie the effect of yam bean root juice but not that of guava fruit juice. Following yam bean root juice ingestion, systemic nitrate apparently converts to nitrite and further to NO which may attenuate platelet responses to collagen stimulation. Cardiovascular benefits of juices from yam bean root and guava fruit are noteworthy in term of the cardiovascular health-promoting approach. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Randomized controlled trial TCTR20150228001 . KEYWORDS: Antiplatelet effect; Blood pressure lowering effect; Guava fruit juice; Plasma cGMP; Systemic nitrate; Systemic nitrite; Yam bean root juice

Psidium guajava L.; Agregação Plaquetária

Int Psychogeriatr. 2018

Savaskan E, Mueller H, Hoerr R, von Gunten A, Gauthier S.

Treatment effects of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761® on the spectrum of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

ABSTRACTBackground:In randomized controlled trials, Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761® has been found to be effective in the treatment of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). METHODS: To assess the effects of EGb 761® on specific BPSD, we analyzed data from all randomized, placebo-controlled, at least 20-week, trials of EGb 761® enrolling patients with dementia (probable Alzheimer's disease (AD), probable vascular dementia or probable AD with cerebrovascular disease) who had clinically significant BPSD (Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) total score at least 6). Data were pooled and joint analyses of NPI single item composite and caregiver distress scores were performed by meta-analysis with a fixed effects model. RESULTS: Four trials involving 1628 patients (EGb 761®, 814; placebo, 814) were identified; treatment duration was 22 or 24 weeks; the daily dose of EGb 761® was 240 mg in all trials. Pooled analyses including data from the full analysis sets of all trials (EGb 761®, 796 patients; placebo, 802 patients) revealed significant superiority of EGb 761® over placebo in total scores and 10 single symptom scores. Regarding caregiver distress scores, EGb 761®-treated patients improved significantly more than those receiving placebo in all symptoms except delusions, hallucinations, and elation/euphoria. The benefit of EGb 761® mainly consists of improvement in symptoms present at baseline, but the incidence of some symptoms was also decreased. CONCLUSIONS: Twenty two- to twenty four-week treatment with Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761® improved BPSD (except psychotic-like features) and caregiver distress caused by such symptoms. KEYWORDS: BPSD; EGb 761®; Ginkgo biloba; behavioral and psychological symptoms; dementia; meta-analysis; systematic review

Ginkgo biloba L.; Demência

J Ethnopharmacol. 2017

Yuan Q, Wang CW, Shi J, Lin ZX.

Effects of Ginkgo biloba on dementia: An overview of systematic reviews.

OBJECTIVE: To assess the cumulative evidence on the efficacy and effectiveness of Ginkgo biloba extract (GbE) in the treatment of dementia. DESIGN: Overview of systematic reviews. METHODS: PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, and Google Scholar were searched in June 2016. Systematic reviews (SRs) of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effects of GbE on different outcomes in people with dementia or cognitive impairment were included. Methodological quality of the included SRs was assessed using the AMSTAR tool. The quality of evidence of the primary studies was assessed using GRADE. RESULTS: Twelve SRs with meta-analyses met the eligibility criteria. The quality of the evidence reported in these SRs varies ranging from low to moderate level. Overall, the available evidence suggests that GbE has potentially beneficial effects over placebo on cognitive performance, activities of daily living, and clinical global impression in the treatment of dementia at doses greater than 200mg/day (usually 240mg/day) administrated for 22 weeks or longer, and that GbE appears to be safe for human consumption. No sufficient evidence supports the favorable effects of GbE administrated for less than 22 weeks. The available evidence consistently indicates that a dose less than 200mg/day of GbE may not be adequate to yield clinical relevant effects in the treatment of dementia. CONCLUSIONS: GbE has potentially beneficial effects for people with dementia when it is administered at doses greater than 200mg/day for at least 5 months. Given the lower quality of the evidence, further rigorously-designed, multicenter-based, large-scale RCTs are warranted. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. KEYWORDS: Alzheimer's disease; Cognitive impairment; Dementia; Ginkgo biloba; Meta-analysis; Systematic review

Ginkgo biloba L.

Curr Top Med Chem. 2016

Yang G, Wang Y, Sun J, Zhang K, Liu J.

Ginkgo Biloba for Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

BACKGROUND: Ginkgo biloba is a natural medicine used for cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. The objective of this review is to explore the effectiveness and safety of Ginkgo biloba in treating mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. METHODS: Electronic search was conducted from PubMed, Cochrane Library, and four major Chinese databases from their inception up to 1(st) December, 2014 for randomized clinical trials on Ginkgo biloba in treating mild cognitive impairment or Alzheimer's disease. Meta-analyses were performed by RevMan 5.2 software. RESULTS: 21 trials with 2608 patients met the inclusion criteria. The general methodological quality of included trials was moderate to poor. Compared with conventional medicine alone, Ginkgo biboba in combination with conventional medicine was superior in improving Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores at 24 weeks for patients with Alzheimer's disease (MD 2.39, 95% CI 1.28 to 3.50, P<0.0001) and mild cognitive impairment (MD 1.90, 95% CI 1.41 to 2.39, P<0.00001), and Activity of Daily Living (ADL) scores at 24 weeks for Alzheimer's disease (MD -3.72, 95% CI -5.68 to -1.76, P=0.0002). When compared with placebo or conventional medicine in individual trials, Ginkgo biboba demonstrated similar but inconsistent findings. Adverse events were mild. CONCLUSION: Ginkgo biloba is potentially beneficial for the improvement of cognitive function, activities of daily living, and global clinical assessment in patients with mild cognitive impairment or Alzheimer's disease. However, due to limited sample size, inconsistent findings and methodological quality of included trials, more research are warranted to confirm the effectiveness and safety of ginkgo biloba in treating mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

Ginkgo biloba L.

World J Biol Psychiatry. 2016

von Gunten A, Schlaefke S, Überla K.

Efficacy of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761(®) in dementia with behavioural and psychological symptoms: A systematic review.

OBJECTIVES: To review current evidence of efficacy of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761® in dementia with behavioural and psychological symptoms (BPSD). METHODS: Randomized, placebo-controlled trials assessing the effects of EGb 761® in dementia patients with BPSD were included if the diagnosis was made in accordance with internationally accepted criteria, the treatment period was at least 22 weeks, outcome measures covered BPSD and at least two of the following domains of assessment, i.e. cognition, activities of daily living and clinical global assessment, and methodological quality was adequate. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) model was used to calculate the pooled effect estimates and to compare effects of EGb 761® and placebo; furthermore, combined risk differences of response rates were calculated. RESULTS: Four published trials were identified, involving altogether 1,628 outpatients with mild to moderate dementia. Least-square mean differences for change from baseline in cognition, BPSD (including caregiver distress rating), activities of daily living, clinical global impression, and quality of life favoured EGb 761® (P < 0.001 for all comparisons). CONCLUSIONS: The pooled analyses provide evidence of efficacy of EGb 761® at a daily dose of 240 mg in the treatment of out-patients suffering from Alzheimer's, vascular or mixed dementia with BPSD. KEYWORDS: Alzheimer's disease; EGb 761®; Ginkgo biloba; dementia; vascular dementia

Ginkgo biloba L.

J Pediatr Surg. 2018

Vilanova-Sanchez A, Gasior AC, Toocheck N, Weaver L, Wood RJ, Reck CA, Wagner A, Hoover E, Gagnon R, Jaggers J, Maloof T, Nash O, Williams C, Levitt MA.

Are Senna based laxatives safe when used as long term treatment for constipation in children?

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Senna is a stimulant laxative commonly used by pediatricians, pediatric gastroenterologists, and pediatric surgeons. Many clinicians avoid Senna for reasons such as tolerance or side effects but this has little scientific justification. We recently found several patients we were caring for developed perineal blistering during the course of Senna treatment. Because of this we chose to review the literature to identify side effects in children taking this medication as well as to analyze our Center's experience with Senna's secondary effects. METHODS: We performed a literature review (MEDLINE, PUBMED) using the keywords of Senna, sen, sennosides and children, and pediatric and functional (idiopathic) constipation. We looked for articles with information regarding perineal blisters related to Senna as well as other secondary effects of Senna laxatives in children when used on a long-term basis. We also reviewed the charts of our patients who had previously taken Senna or are currently taking Senna, looking for adverse reactions. RESULTS: Eight articles in the literature reported perineal blisters after administration of Senna laxatives in 28 patients. Of those occurrences, 18 patients (64%) had accidental administration of Senna and 10 (36%) had Senna prescribed as a long term treatment. All of the blistering episodes were related to high dose, night-time accidents, or intense diarrhea with a long period of stool to skin contact. At our institution, from 2014 to 2017, we prescribed Senna and have recorded data to 640 patients. During the study period, 17 patients (2.2%) developed blisters during their treatment. Patients who developed blisters had higher doses 60mg/day; 60 [12-100] vs. 17.5 [1.7-150] (p<0.001). All of the blistering episodes were related to night-time accidents, with a long period of stool to skin contact. 83 (13%) patients presented minor side effects such as abdominal cramping, vomiting or diarrhea which resolved once the type of laxatives were changed or enemas were started. The doses of Senna was not significantly different in these patients 15mg/day [4.4-150] vs. 17.5mg/day [1.5-150]. There were no other long-term side effects from Senna found in the pediatric literature for long-term treatment besides abdominal cramping or diarrhea during the first weeks of administration. We found no evidence of tolerance to Senna in our review. CONCLUSION: There is a paucity of information in the literature regarding side effects of sennosides as a long-term therapy, and to our knowledge, this is the first review of Senna side effects in children. Senna induced dermatitis is rare, but may occur when patients need a higher dose. All of the cases described had a long period of exposure of the skin to stool. Besides the perineal rash with blisters, we could find no other described major side effect with Senna administration in the pediatric population or evidence of the frequently mentioned concern of the development of tolerance to Senna. Pediatric caregivers should advise families of the rare side effect of skin blistering and educate them to change the diaper frequently in children who are not toilet- trained to reduce stool to skin exposure. We can conclude from this review that Senna is a safe treatment option for constipation in children. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: IV. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Senna alexandrina Mill.

Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2017

Demarque DP, Pinho DR, Callejon DR, de Oliveira GG, Silva DB, Carollo CA, Lopes NP.

New cascarosides from Rhamnus purshiana and fragmentation studies of the class by ion trap mass spectrometry.

Abstract RATIONALE: Anthrone and oxanthrone are important anthraquinone derivatives present in medicinal plants which are used in therapeutics as laxatives. Some of these plants need to be stored at least one year before they can be used in order to oxidize anthrones into oxanthrones, so to avoid severe diarrhea and dehydration. Therefore, this work aimed to characterize fragmentation reactions between these anthraquinones to provide an easy way to differentiate between the two classes, since it is necessary and important to discriminate and identify these derivatives in laxative plants and phytotherapic drugs. METHODS: Anthrone (cascarosides A-D) and oxanthrone (10-hydroxycascaroside A and B) derivatives were isolated and identified by NMR (1 H, 13 C, DEPT, NOESY) and used for fragmentation study by direct infusion on an electrospray ionization (ESI) ion trap mass spectrometer (AmazonSL, Bruker) in positive and negative mode. RESULTS: The additional hydroxyl at C-10 in oxanthrones allowed McLafferty-type rearrangements to form the quinone group in positive mode, while in negative mode the second sugar loss infringed the odd-electron rule and formed a radical fragment. No differences in fragmentation reactions were found between diastereoisomeric pairs, although the additional oxygen at C-10 of oxanthrones allowed a different fragmentation pattern. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed fragmentation patterns can be used to differentiate anthrones from oxanthrones in both ion modes. In addition, they can be applied to differentiate these compounds in anthraquinone-rich plants and phytotherapic drugs. Finally, herein, the strategy applied allowed us to identify new natural products. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Rhamnus purshiana DC.

Phytomedicine. 2017

Myers SP, Vigar V.

Effects of a standardised extract of Trifolium pratense (Promensil) at a dosage of 80mg in the treatment of menopausal hot flushes: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

OBJECTIVE: To critically assess the evidence for a specific standardised extract of Trifolium pratense isoflavones (Promensil) at a dosage of 80mg/day in the treatment of menopausal hot flushes. DATA SOURCES: Systematic literature searches were performed in Medline, Scopus, CINAHL Plus, Cochrane, AMED and InforRMIT and citations obtained from 1996 to March 2016. Reference lists were checked; corresponding authors contacted and the grey literature searched for additional publications. REVIEW METHODS: Studies were selected according to predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. All randomised clinical trials of a specific standardised extract of Trifolium pratense isoflavones (Promensil) used as a mono-component at 80mg/day and measuring vasomotor symptoms were included. The data extraction and quality assessment were performed independently by one reviewer and validated by a second with any disagreements being settled by discussion. Weighted mean differences and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for continuous data using the fixed-effects model. RESULTS: Twenty potentially relevant papers were identified, with only five studies meeting the inclusion criteria. The meta-analysis demonstrated a statistical and clinically relevant reduction in hot flush frequency in the active treatment group compared to placebo. Weighted mean difference 3.63 hot flushes per day: [95% CI 2.70-4.56]; p˂0.00001). Due to a lack of homogeneity a priori defined sub-group analyses were performed demonstrating a substantive difference between cross-over and parallel-arm clinical trial designs. CONCLUSION: There is evidence for a statistical and clinically significant benefit for using a specific standardised extract of red clover isoflavones (Promensil) at 80mg/day for treating hot flushes in menopausal women across the 3 studies included in the meta-analysis. The preparation was safe over the short-term duration of the studies (3 months). Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved. KEYWORDS: Hot flushes; Isoflavones; Menopause; Red clover; Standardisation; Trifolium pratense

Trifolium pratense L.

G Ital Dermatol Venereol. 2017

Della Valle V.

Uncaria tomentosa.

Uncaria tomentosa (U. tomentosa) or uña de gato, a species of vine of Rubiaceae family, was used from centuries in various medical conditions. Although there are no randomized controlled trials or published human outcome studies, some conditions reportedly improved by U. tomentosa include osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, prostatitis, viral illnesses and cancer (acting as a non-specific immunomodulantign agent) and it may also have potential as an immunomodulating adaptogen in cellular aging. The understanding of some specific mechanisms of molecular action leads to the demonstration of various anti-inflammatory, immunostimulating and protective effects. These results bring the strong hypothesis that U. tomentosa could be effective in the topical treatment of dermatological manifestation, namely rosacea.

Uncaria tomentosa (Willd. DC.)

Molecules. 2017

Kośmider A, Czepielewska E, Kuraś M, Gulewicz K, Pietrzak W, Nowak R, Nowicka G.

Uncaria tomentosa Leaves Decoction Modulates Differently ROS Production in Cancer and Normal Cells, and Effects Cisplatin Cytotoxicity.

Uncaria tomentosa is a woody vine with a long history of use in traditional Peruvian medicine and nowadays supplements containing this vine as ingredient are available. Immunomodulating, anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties of Uncaria tomentosa have been suggested and attributed mainly to the presence of tetracyclic or pentacyclic oxindole alkaloids. However, the synergic action of different compounds occurring in extracts and modulation of redox processes may significantly influence the anticancer activity of Uncaria tomentosa. The aim of the present study was to investigate for the first time the cytotoxic effects of the tetracyclic alkaloids free aqueous extract (decoction) of dried Uncaria tomentosa leaf blades in normal and cancer cells, and to assess the effect of the tested extract on cisplatin (CDDP) cytotoxicity. Tested Uncaria tomentosa extract was not cytotoxic for NHDF cells, but demonstrated cytotoxic effect against HepG2 cells. The extract increased ROS production in HepG2 cells, which resulted in decreased GSH level, leading to apoptosis of these cells through activation of caspase-3 and caspase-7. A reduction of NF-κB active form was observed in cancer cells. In normal cells the extract did not affect ROS production, GSH level and NF-κB activity, and maintained cell viability. HepG2 cells incubation with Uncaria tomentosa decoction and simultaneously with CDDP resulted in an increase in CDPP cytotoxic activity against HepG2, while under the same conditions Uncaria tomentosa prevents NHDF cell viability reduction due to CDDP. The results indicate that Uncaria tomentosa leaves decoction modulates differently cancer and normal cells oxidative metabolism and, enhanced cytotoxicity of CDDP against cancer cells and at the same time increased normal healthy cells resistance to cisplatin. Further studies are needed to confirm our observations and to describe underlying molecular mechanism, and the potential usefulness of Uncaria tomentosa decoction in adjuvant therapy for cancer.

Uncaria tomentosa (Willd. DC.)

Food Chem. 2016

Pereira JB Jr, Dantas KG.

Evaluation of inorganic elements in cat's claw teas using ICP OES and GF AAS.

The determination of Ba, Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, P, Pb, and Zn by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES), and Se by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF AAS), has been carried out in dry matter and teas from 11 samples of the cat's claw plant. The accuracy and precision values were verified against GBW 07604 (Poplar leaves) certified reference material and by the recovery test. Results showed a high content of Ca in the medicinal plant studied, followed by Mg and P. The values obtained showed that the elements studied have different concentrations depending on the method of tea preparation. The highest levels were observed in Ca and Mg, and the lowest for Se and Pb, by both infusion and decoction. Teas prepared from this plant were found to be at safe levels for human consumption, and may be suitable as sources of these elements in the human diet.

Uncaria tomentosa (Willd. DC.)

Phytother Res. 2018

Ebrahimzadeh Attari V, Malek Mahdavi A, Javadivala Z, Mahluji S, Zununi Vahed S, Ostadrahimi A.

A systematic review of the anti-obesity and weight lowering effect of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and its mechanisms of action.

Recently, the beneficial effects of ginger on obesity is taken into consideration. Albeit, it seems that the anti-obesity effect of ginger and its mechanism of action has not yet been reviewed. Therefore, the aim of this study was to systematically review the effect of Zingiber officinale Roscoe on obesity management. Databases including PubMed, Scopus, Google scholar, and Science Direct were searched from 1995 until May 2017 using the definitive keywords. Searching was limited to articles with English language. All of the relevant human and animal studies and also in vitro studies were included. Review articles, abstract in congress, and also other varieties of ginger were excluded. Eligibility of included articles were evaluated by 3 reviewers, which also extracted data. Articles were critically assessed individually for possible risk of bias. Twenty-seven articles (6 in vitro, 17 animal, and 4 human studies) were reviewed. Most of the experimental studies supported the weight lowering effect of ginger extract or powder in obese animal models, whereas the results of the available limited clinical studies showed no changes or slight changes of anthropometric measurements and body composition in subjects with obesity. Ginger could modulate obesity through various potential mechanisms including increasing thermogenesis, increasing lipolysis, suppression of lipogenesis, inhibition of intestinal fat absorption, and controlling appetite. This review article provides some convincing evidence to support the efficacy of ginger in obesity management and demonstrates the importance of future clinical trials.

Zingiber officinale Roscoe

Ann Nutr Metab. 2017

Taghizadeh M, Farzin N, Taheri S, Mahlouji M, Akbari H, Karamali F, Asemi Z.

The Effect of Dietary Supplements Containing Green Tea, Capsaicin and Ginger Extracts on Weight Loss and Metabolic Profiles in Overweight Women: A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.

BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary supplements containing green tea, capsaicin and ginger extracts on weight loss and metabolic profiles among overweight women. METHODS: This randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial was implemented among 50 overweight women. Participants were randomly divided into 2 groups. Group A received dietary supplements containing 125 mg green tea, 25 mg capsaicin and 50 mg ginger extracts (n = 25) group B received placebos (n = 25) twice with lunch and twice with dinner daily for 8 weeks. RESULTS: Compared with placebo, taking dietary supplements containing green tea, capsaicin and ginger resulted in a significant decrease in weight (-1.8 ± 1.5 vs. +0.4 ± 1.2 kg, respectively, p < 0.001) and body mass index (BMI; -0.7 ± 0.5 vs. +0.1 ± 0.5 kg/m2, respectively, p < 0.001). In addition, subjects who received green tea, capsaicin and ginger co-supplements had significantly decreased serum insulin concentrations (-2.6 ± 3.9 vs. -0.6 ± 2.0 µIU/mL, p = 0.02), homeostatic model of assessment for insulin resistance (-0.5 ± 0.8 vs. -0.05 ± 0.6, p = 0.01), and increased quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (+0.01 ± 0.01 vs. +0.001 ± 0.01, p = 0.008) and plasma glutathione (GSH) levels (+73.8 ± 120.6 vs. -28.3 ± 193.4 µmol/L, p = 0.03) compared with the placebo. CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicated that taking green tea, capsaicin and ginger co-supplements for 8 weeks among overweight women had beneficial effects on weight, BMI, markers of insulin metabolism and plasma GSH levels.

Zingiber officinale Roscoe

Phytother Res. 2017

Del Grossi Moura M, Lopes LC, Biavatti MW, Kennedy SA, de Oliveira E Silva MC, Silva MT, de Cássia Bergamaschi C.

Oral herbal medicines marketed in Brazil for the treatment of osteoarthritis: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Herbal medications are commonly used to manage symptoms associated with osteoarthritis (OA). This systematic review evaluated the effectiveness and safety of oral medications used in Brazil for the treatment of OA. Randomized clinical trials involving adults with OA treated by a herbal medicine or a control group were eligible. The primary outcomes measured were pain, physical function, swelling, stiffness and quality of life; and the secondary outcomes were adverse events, activity limitations and treatment satisfaction. Sixteen studies were included (n = 1,741 patients) in the systematic review and nine studies in the meta-analysis, representing 6 of the 13 herbal medicines studied: Boswellia serrata (n = 2), Curcuma longa (n = 3), Harpagophytum procumbens (n = 1), Salix daphnoides (n = 3), Uncaria guianensis (n = 2) and Zingiber officinale (n = 5). B. serrata was more effective than both placebo and valdecoxib for improvement of pain and physical function. No difference was observed for H. procumbens, C. longa and U. guianensis compared with control. Z. officinale showed improvement of pain over placebo. The evidence was insufficient to support the effective and safe use of these herbal medicines, because the quality of evidence of studies was low. This study guides managers of the Brazilian public health system and prescribers in decision-making regarding the use of these herbal medicines for OA.

Zingiber officinale Roscoe

Ann Oncol. 2017

Bossi P, Cortinovis D, Fatigoni S, Cossu Rocca M, Fabi A, Seminara P, Ripamonti C, Alfieri S, Granata R, Bergamini C, Agustoni F, Bidoli P, Nolè F, Pessi MA, Macchi F, Michellini L, Montanaro F, Roila F.

A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter study of a ginger extract in the management of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) in patients receiving high-dose cisplatin.

BACKGROUND: The activity of ginger in the management of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) has been suggested, but design inadequacies, heterogeneity of the population, small numbers and poor quality of tested products limit the possibility to offer generalizable results. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter study in patients planned to receive ≥2 chemotherapy cycles with high dose (>50 mg/m2) cisplatin. Patients received ginger 160 mg/day (with standardized dose of bioactive compounds) or placebo in addition to the standard antiemetic prophylaxis for CINV, starting from the day after cisplatin administration. CINV was assessed through daily visual-analogue scale and Functional Living Index Emesis questionnaires. The main objective was protection from delayed nausea; secondary end points included intercycle nausea and nausea anticipatory symptoms. RESULTS: In total, 121 patients received ginger and 123 placebo. Lung (49%) and head and neck cancer (HNC; 35%) were the most represented tumors. No differences were reported in terms of safety profile or compliance. The incidence of delayed, intercycle and anticipatory nausea did not differ between the two arms in the first cycle and second cycle. A benefit of ginger over placebo in Functional Living Index Emesis nausea score differences (day 6-day 1) was identified for females (P = 0.048) and HNC patients (P = 0.038). CONCLUSIONS: In patients treated with high-dose cisplatin, the daily addition of ginger, even if safe, did not result in a protective effect on CINV. The favorable effect observed on nausea in subgroups at particular risk of nausea (females; HNC) deserves specific investigation.

Zingiber officinale Roscoe

Blood Press. 2016

Azimi P, Ghiasvand R, Feizi A, Hosseinzadeh J, Bahreynian M, Hariri M, Khosravi-Boroujeni H.

Effect of cinnamon, cardamom, saffron and ginger consumption on blood pressure and a marker of endothelial function in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A randomized controlled clinical trial.

Herbal medicines with high amounts of phytochemicals have been shown to have beneficial effects on blood pressure (BP), endothelial function and anthropometric measures. This study aimed to determine the effect of herbal treatment on BP, endothelial function and anthropometric measures in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This clinical trial included 204 T2DM patients randomly assigned to four intervention groups receiving 3 g cinnamon, 3 g cardamom, 1 g saffron or 3 g ginger with three glasses of black tea, and one control group consuming only three glasses of tea without any herbals, for 8 weeks. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), systolic and diastolic BP and anthropometric measures were collected at baseline and after 8 weeks. No significant difference was found between various medicinal plants in terms of influencing BP, serum soluble (s)ICAM-1 concentrations and anthropometric measures. However, in within-group comparison saffron and ginger intakes significantly reduced sICAM-1 concentrations (340.9 ± 14.4 vs 339.69 ± 14.4 ng/ml, p = 0.01, and 391.78 ± 16.0 vs 390.97 ± 15.8 ng/ml, p = 0.009, respectively) and ginger intake affected systolic BP (143.06 ± 0.2 vs 142.07 ± 0.2 mmHg, p = 0.02). Although administration of these herbal medicines as supplementary remedies could affect BP and sICAM-1 concentrations, there was no significant difference between the plants in terms of influencing anthropometric measures, BP and endothelial function.

Zingiber officinale Roscoe

Nutrients. 2017

Marx W, McCarthy AL, Ried K, McKavanagh D, Vitetta L, Sali A, Lohning A, Isenring E.

The Effect of a Standardized Ginger Extract on Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea-Related Quality of Life in Patients Undergoing Moderately or Highly Emetogenic Chemotherapy: A Double Blind, Randomized, Placebo Controlled Trial.

Ginger supplementation could be an effective adjuvant treatment for chemotherapy-induced nausea (CIN). The aim of this clinical trial was to address significant methodological limitations in previous trials. Patients (N = 51) were randomly allocated to receive either 1.2 g of standardised ginger extract or placebo per day, in addition to standard anti-emetic therapy, during the first three cycles of chemotherapy. The primary outcome was CIN-related quality of life (QoL) measured with the Functional Living Index- Emesis (FLIE) questionnaire. Secondary outcomes included acute and delayed nausea, vomiting, and retching as well as cancer-related fatigue, nutritional status, and CIN and vomiting-specific prognostic factors. Over three consecutive chemotherapy cycles, nausea was more prevalent than vomiting (47% vs. 12%). In chemotherapy Cycle 1, intervention participants reported significantly better QoL related to CIN (p = 0.029), chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV)-related QoL (p = 0.043), global QoL (p = 0.015) and less fatigue (p = 0.006) than placebo participants. There were no significant results in Cycle 2. In Cycle 3, global QoL (p = 0.040) and fatigue (p = 0.013) were significantly better in the intervention group compared to placebo. This trial suggests adjuvant ginger supplementation is associated with better chemotherapy-induced nausea-related quality of life and less cancer-related fatigue, with no difference in adverse effects compared to placebo.

Zingiber officinale Roscoe

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2016

Ansari M, Porouhan P, Mohammadianpanah M, Omidvari S, Mosalaei A, Ahmadloo N, Nasrollahi H, Hamedi SH.

Efficacy of Ginger in Control of Chemotherapy Induced Nausea and Vomiting in Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Doxorubicin-Based Chemotherapy.

Nausea and vomiting are among the most serious side effects of chemotherapy, in some cases leading to treatment interruption or chemotherapy dose reduction. Ginger has long been known as an antiemetic drug, used for conditions such as motion sickness, nausea-vomiting in pregnancy, and post-operation side effects. One hundred and fifty female patients with breast cancer entered this prospective study and were randomized to receive ginger (500 mg ginger powder, twice a day for 3 days) or placebo. One hundred and nineteen patients completed the study: 57 of them received ginger and 62 received ginger for the frst 3 chemotherapy cycles. Mean age in all patients was 48.6 (25-79) years. After 1st chemotherapy, mean nausea in the ginger and control arms were 1.36 (±1.31) and 1.46 (±1.28) with no statistically significant difference. After the 2nd chemotherapy session, nausea score was slightly more in the ginger group (1.36 versus 1.32). After 3rd chemotherapy, mean nausea severity in control group was less than ginger group [1.37 (±1.14), versus 1.42 (±1.30)]. Considering all patients, nausea was slightly more severe in ginger arm. In ginger arm mean nausea score was 1.42 (±0.96) and in control arm it was 1.40 (±0.92). Mean vomiting scores after chemotherapy in ginger arm were 0.719 (±1.03), 0.68 (±1.00) and 0.77 (±1.18). In control arm, mean vomiting was 0.983 (±1.23), 1.03 (±1.22) and 1.15 (±1.27). In all sessions, ginger decreased vomiting severity from 1.4 (±1.04) to 0.71 (±0.86). None of the differences were significant. In those patients who received the AC regimen, vomiting was less severe (0.64±0.87) compared to those who received placebo (1.13±1.12), which was statistically significant (p-value <0.05). Further and larger studies are needed to draw conclusions.

Zingiber officinale Roscoe

Phytother Res. 2016

Emrani Z, Shojaei E, Khalili H.

Ginger for Prevention of Antituberculosis-induced Gastrointestinal Adverse Reactions Including Hepatotoxicity: A Randomized Pilot Clinical Trial.

In this study, the potential benefits of ginger in preventing antituberculosis drug-induced gastrointestinal adverse reactions including hepatotoxicity have been evaluated in patients with tuberculosis. Patients in the ginger and placebo groups (30 patients in each group) received either 500 mg ginger (Zintoma)(®) or placebo one-half hour before each daily dose of antituberculosis drugs for 4 weeks. Patients' gastrointestinal complaints (nausea, vomiting, dyspepsia, and abdominal pain) and antituberculosis drug-induced hepatotoxicity were recorded during the study period. In this cohort, nausea was the most common antituberculosis drug-induced gastrointestinal adverse reactions. Forty eight (80%) patients experienced nausea. Nausea was more common in the placebo than the ginger group [27 (90%) vs 21 (70%), respectively, p = 0.05]. During the study period, 16 (26.7%) patients experienced antituberculosis drug-induced hepatotoxicity. Patients in the ginger group experienced less, but not statistically significant, antituberculosis drug-induced hepatotoxicity than the placebo group (16.7% vs 36.7%, respectively, p = 0.07). In conclusion, ginger may be a potential option for prevention of antituberculosis drug-induced gastrointestinal adverse reactions including hepatotoxicity.

Zingiber officinale Roscoe

Perit Dial Int. 2016

Tabibi H, Imani H, Atabak S, Najafi I, Hedayati M, Rahmani L.

Effects of Ginger on Serum Lipids and Lipoproteins in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

BACKGROUND: In peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients, one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease is lipid abnormalities. This study was designed to investigate the effects of ginger supplementation on serum lipids and lipoproteins in PD patients. ♦ METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 36 PD patients were randomly assigned to either the ginger or the placebo group. The patients in the ginger group received 1,000 mg ginger daily for 10 weeks, while the placebo group received corresponding placebos. At baseline and at the end of week 10, 7 mL of blood were obtained from each patient after a 12- to 14-hour fast, and serum concentrations of triglyceride, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), and lipoprotein (a) [Lp (a)] were measured. ♦ RESULTS: Serum triglyceride concentration decreased significantly up to 15% in the ginger group at the end of week 10 compared with baseline (p < 0.01), and the reduction was significant in comparison with the placebo group (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences between the 2 groups in mean changes of serum total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, and Lp (a). ♦ CONCLUSION: This study indicates that daily administration of 1,000 mg ginger reduces serum triglyceride concentration, which is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, in PD patients.

Zingiber officinale Roscoe

Int J Cosmet Sci. 2017

Mazzarello V, Solinas G, Bandiera P, Pomponi V, Piu G, Ferrari M, Montella A.

How long does the volumizing effect of a Zingiber officinale-based lip plumper last?

OBJECTIVE: Lip plumpers should enhance lip volume. It has been shown that no noticeable result was obtained after long term use of these products. The present study has been carried out to assess lip plumpers' short term effectiveness within 2 h from application. METHODS: Effectiveness was assessed using non-invasive techniques. The effect on vascularisation was analyzed with the Mexameter MX 16® , and the volume enhancing effect was assessed by anthropometric measures and profilometry analysis from 3D scanning electron microscope (SEM) images using Alicona's MEX software. Sixty female volunteers were recruited for the study and the measurements were taken 15, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min after product application. RESULTS: Product application produced a statistically significant increase of lip vascularisation during the first 15 min, which stayed unchanged until the 30th min, then decreased in intensity. The volumizing effect was revealed by 3D profilometry analysis only, not by anthropological measurements. The use of 3D SEM images showed an increase of 0.50 mm in the protrusion of the lip vermilion (MHP parameter) during the first 15 min from product application. CONCLUSION: Results suggest that the lip plumper temporarily enhances vasodilation and increases lip volume.

Zingiber officinale Roscoe

Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol. 2018

Sridharan K, Sivaramakrishnan G.

Interventions for treating nausea and vomiting in pregnancy: a network meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis of randomized clinical trials.

INTRODUCTION: Several drugs were explored for their utility in treating nausea and vomiting in pregnancy (NVP). The present study is a network meta-analysis of such drugs. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched for randomized clinical trials that have compared active interventions (with placebo or other active interventions) for treating NVP. Nausea scores were the primary outcome and changes in nausea scores, emetic episodes, adverse events, and vomiting control were the key secondary outcomes. Weighted mean difference was the effect estimate for continuous variable and odds ratio for the numerical variable. Random-effects model was used and the strength of the evidence was graded. RESULTS: Fifty studies were included in the systematic review and 42 in the meta-analysis. Acupuncture, chamomile, dimenhydrinate, doxylamine/vitamin B6, ginger, quince, metoclopramide, and vitamin B6 were associated with reduced nausea scores compared to placebo. Of these interventions, ginger and vitamin B6 were also associated with better vomiting control and less incidence of adverse events. Adequate evidence supporting the use exists only for ginger and the quality of evidence for this comparison is moderate. Strength of evidence for all other comparisons is very low. CONCLUSION: Present evidence is conclusive on the therapeutic benefits of ginger in treating NVP. Although favorable results were obtained for several other interventions, the strength of evidence is very low. The results of this network meta-analysis should be interpreted with extreme caution as it might change with the advent of data from future head-to-head clinical trials.

Zingiber officinale Roscoe

Pak J Pharm Sci. 2016

Rukh L, Nazar H, Usmanghani K.

Efficacy of Gingocap as compared to pyridoxine in the treatment of nausea and vomiting during pregnancy.

Nausea and vomiting is the common problem disturbing almost 80% of the females in initial three months of conception and later sometime throughout pregnancy. To find out the efficacy and safety of herbal coded test drug Gingocap in comparison with the control drug Pyridoxine, a randomized clinical case control study was conducted at the OPD of Yusra Medical Centre, Karachi and Amir Habib Medical Center and Maternity Home, Karachi. After administration of test and control drug the frequency of nausea and vomiting was noted after every 2 weeks on 2nd, 4th, 6th and 8th weeks during 60 days of the course of study. The percentage of reduction of nausea and vomiting symptoms from the baseline in cases treated with test Gingocap compared to control drug Pyridoxine was recorded. Overall 35 and 30 patients were administered Gingocap and Pyridoxine between 6-16 weeks conception respectively. The data analyzed through T-test using SPSS version 18.0. It was concluded that Gingocap has the potential to relieve the symptoms of nausea and vomiting and exhibited no side effects and this drug was acceptable by maximum number of the patients.

Zingiber officinale Roscoe

Eur J Nutr. 2016

Ebrahimzadeh Attari V, Ostadrahimi A, Asghari Jafarabadi M, Mehralizadeh S, Mahluji S.

Changes of serum adipocytokines and body weight following Zingiber officinale supplementation in obese women: a RCT.

PURPOSE: The present randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study aimed to evaluate the effect of Zingiber officinale (ginger) consumption on some metabolic and clinical features of obesity. METHODS: Eighty eligible obese women (aged 18-45 years) were randomly assigned to either ginger or placebo groups (receiving 2 g/day of ginger powder or corn starch as two 1 g tablets) for 12 weeks. Body mass index (BMI) and body composition were assessed every 4 weeks, and serum levels of leptin, adiponectin, resistin, insulin and glucose were determined before and after intervention. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) were also calculated. RESULTS: Ginger consumption significantly decreased BMI, serum insulin and HOMA-IR index, along with increasing QUICKIs as compared to the placebo. Moreover, significant reductions in serum leptin, resistin and glucose were observed in both groups, especially in ginger group with nonsignificant differences between groups. The body composition and serum levels of adiponectin were not significantly changed in study groups. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, our findings demonstrate a minor beneficial effect of 2 g ginger powder supplementation for 12 weeks on weight loss and some metabolic features of obesity. However, given the lack of data in this area, ongoing clinical trials are needed to further explore ginger's effectiveness.

Zingiber officinale Roscoe

Zhongguo Zhen Jiu. 2016

Lu J, Wu S, Liang F, Liu J, Yang S, Wang L, Zhou H, Wang H.

[Ginger-partition moxibustion combined with glucocorticoid for thyreoitis at subacute stage: a randomizd controlled trial].

OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical effects between ginger-partition moxibustion combined with glucocorticoid and simple oral glucocorticoid for thyreoitis at subacute stage. METHODS: Eighty-one patients were randomly divided into an observation group (41 cases) and a control group (40 cases). In the observation group, ginger-partition moxibustion and hormone were applied. Moxa cones were used at local ashi points, Zusanli (ST 36), Guanyuan (CV 4) and Qihai (CV 6), six cones every point, once every other day and three times a week. Besides, 24 mg methylprednisolone tablets were adopted orally every day, and in two weeks the dose was 16 mg/d, in four weeks 8 mg/d, in six weeks 4 mg/d; all the patients were observed for 8 week. In the control group, simple methylprednisolone was prescribed orally, and the dose, the usage and treatment time were the same as those in the observation group. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxin (T4) and ultra-sensitive thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) before and after treatment were observed in the two groups, as well as fever, the pain of thyroid gland, the regression time of swelling and adverse reaction. RESULTS: The time of thyroid gland pain relieved of the observation group was earlier than that of the control group [(3.07 ± 0.78) days vs (3.62 ± 0.92) days, P < 0.05]. After treatment, T3, T4 and ESR were declined apparently (all P < 0.01), and TSH was obviously increased in the two groups (both P < 0.01). After 2-week treatment, ESR in the observation group was lower than that in the control group (P < 0.05). After 4-week treatment, T3, T4, TSH and ESR in the observation group were better than those in the control group (all P < 0.05). After 8 weeks, all indices in the observation group were superior to those in the control group, without statistical significance between the two groups (all P > 0.05). The effects of the observation group in 2 weeks, 4 weeks and 8 weeks were better than those in the control group (all P < 0.05). The cured course was shorter in the observation group than that in the control group (P < 0.05). The adverse reaction rate in the observation group was lower than that in the control group [4.9% (2/41) vs 22.5% (9/40), P < 0.05]. Three months later after treatment, the cured patients were followed. There was no recrudescence in the observation group and three patients caught the disease again in the control group, but there was no statistical significance between the two groups (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Ginger-partition moxibustion combined with glucocorticoid achieves better effect than simple oral glucocorticoid for thyreoitis at subacute stage, and the adverse reaction is less, which presents the clinical advantages of the integration of Chinese and western medicine.

Zingiber officinale Roscoe

Nutrients. 2016

Zhang Y, Liu W, Liu D, Zhao T, Tian H.

Efficacy of Aloe Vera Supplementation on Prediabetes and Early Non-Treated Diabetic Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

The aim of this study was to evaluate evidence for the efficacy of aloe vera on managing prediabetes and early non-treated diabetes mellitus. We performed a systematic search of PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials until 28 January 2016. A total of five randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving 415 participants were included. Compared with the controls, aloe vera supplementation significantly reduced the concentrations of fasting blood glucose (FBG) (p = 0.02; weighed mean difference [WMD]: −30.05 mg/dL; 95% confidence interval [CI]: −54.87 to −5.23 mg/dL), glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) (p < 0.00001; WMD: −0.41%; 95% CI: −0.55% to −0.27%), triglyceride (p = 0.0001), total cholesterol (TC) (p < 0.00001), and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) (p < 0.00001). Aloe vera was superior to placebo in increasing serum high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels (p = 0.04). Only one adverse event was reported. The evidence from RCTs showed that aloe vera might effectively reduce the levels of FBG, HbA1c, triglyceride, TC and LDL-C, and increase the levels of HDL-C on prediabetes and early non-treated diabetic patients. Limited evidence exists about the safety of aloe vera. Given the small number and poor quality of RCTs included in the meta-analysis, these results are inconclusive. A large-scale, well-designed RCT is needed to further address this issue. Keywords: aloe vera, prediabetes, randomized controlled trials, meta-analysis

Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f

J Altern Complement Med. 2016

Dick WR, Fletcher EA, Shah SA.

Reduction of Fasting Blood Glucose and Hemoglobin A1c Using Oral Aloe Vera: A Meta-Analysis.

PURPOSE: Diabetes mellitus is a global epidemic and one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Additional medications that are novel, affordable, and efficacious are needed to treat this rampant disease. This meta-analysis was performed to ascertain the effectiveness of oral aloe vera consumption on the reduction of fasting blood glucose (FBG) and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). METHODS: PubMed, CINAHL, Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, and Natural Standard databases were searched. Studies of aloe vera's effect on FBG, HbA1c, homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), fasting serum insulin, fructosamine, and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in prediabetic and diabetic populations were examined. After data extraction, the parameters of FBG and HbA1c had appropriate data for meta-analyses. Extracted data were verified and then analyzed by StatsDirect Statistical Software. Reductions of FBG and HbA1c were reported as the weighted mean differences from baseline, calculated by a random-effects model with 95% confidence intervals. Subgroup analyses to determine clinical and statistical heterogeneity were also performed. Publication bias was assessed by using the Egger bias statistic. RESULTS: Nine studies were included in the FBG parameter (n = 283); 5 of these studies included HbA1c data (n = 89). Aloe vera decreased FBG by 46.6 mg/dL (p < 0.0001) and HbA1c by 1.05% (p = 0.004). Significant reductions of both endpoints were maintained in all subgroup analyses. Additionally, the data suggest that patients with an FBG ≥200 mg/dL may see a greater benefit. A mean FBG reduction of 109.9 mg/dL was observed in this population (p ≤ 0.0001). The Egger statistic showed publication bias with FBG but not with HbA1c (p = 0.010 and p = 0.602, respectively). CONCLUSION: These results support the use of oral aloe vera for significantly reducing FBG (46.6 mg/dL) and HbA1c (1.05%). Further clinical studies that are more robust and better controlled are warranted to further explore these findings.

Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f

J Clin Pharm Ther. 2016

Suksomboon N, Poolsup N, Punthanitisarn S.

Effect of Aloe vera on glycaemic control in prediabetes and type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Aloe vera (Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f., Xanthorrhoeaceae family) has long been used in folk or traditional medicine for diabetes. Several studies have been conducted on the effect of Aloe vera on glycaemic control, but the results appear inconsistent. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the effect of Aloe vera on glycaemic control in prediabetes and type 2 diabetes. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was conducted through MEDLINE, CENTRAL, CINAHL, Scopus,, Web of Science, Proquest, LILACS, HerbMed, NAPRALERT and CNKI to the end of January 2016 without language restriction. Historical search of relevant articles and personal contact with experts in the area were also undertaken. Studies were included if they were (1) randomized controlled trials of Aloe vera aimed at assessing glycaemic control in prediabetes or type 2 diabetes and (2) reporting fasting plasma glucose (FPG) or haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c ). Treatment effect was estimated with mean difference in the final value of FPG and HbA1c between the treatment and the control groups. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Eight trials involving 470 patients (235 each for prediabetes and type 2 diabetes) were included. In prediabetes, Aloe vera significantly improved FPG (mean difference -0·22 mmol/L, 95% CI -0·32 mmol/L to -0·12 mmol/L, P < 0·0001), with no effect on HbA1c (mean difference -2 mmol/mol, 95% CI -5 mmol/mol to 1 mmol/mol). Aloe vera may improve glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes, with a marginal improvement in FPG (mean differences -1·17 mmol/L, 95% CI -2·35 mmol/L to 0·00 mmol/L, P = 0·05) and a significant improvement in HbA1c (mean difference -11 mmol/mol, 95% CI -19 mmol/mol to -2 mmol/mol, P = 0·01). WHAT IS NEW AND CONCLUSIONS: The current evidence suggests some potential benefit of Aloe vera in improving glycaemic control in prediabetes and type 2 diabetes. However, given the limitations of the available evidence and the high heterogeneity in study results, high-quality, well-powered randomized controlled trials using standardized preparations are needed to quantify any beneficial effects of Aloe vera on glycaemic control.

Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f

Phytother Res. 2016

Costa CR, Amorim BR, de Magalhães P, De Luca Canto G, Acevedo AC, Guerra EN.

Effects of Plants on Osteogenic Differentiation and Mineralization of Periodontal Ligament Cells: A Systematic Review.

This systematic review aimed to evaluate the effects of plants on osteogenic differentiation and mineralization of human periodontal ligament cells. The included studies were selected using five different electronic databases. The reference list of the included studies was crosschecked, and a partial gray literature search was undertaken using Google Scholar and ProQuest. The methodology of the selected studies was evaluated using GRADE. After a two-step selection process, eight studies were identified. Six different types of plants were reported in the selected studies, which were Morinda citrifolia, Aloe vera, Fructus cnidii, Zanthoxylum schinifolium, Centella asiatica, and Epimedium species. They included five types of isolated plant components: acemannan, osthole, hesperetin, asiaticoside, and icariin. In addition, some active substances of these components were identified as polysaccharides, coumarins, flavonoids, and triterpenes. The studies demonstrated the potential effects of plants on osteogenic differentiation, cell proliferation, mineral deposition, and gene and protein expression. Four studies showed that periodontal ligament cells induce mineral deposition after plant treatment. Although there are few studies on the subject, current evidence suggests that plants are potentially useful for the treatment of periodontal diseases. However, further investigations are required to confirm the promising effect of these plants in regenerative treatments.

Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f

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