Artigos Recentes

Phytother Res. 2018

Herbal medicines in the treatment of psychiatric disorders: 10-year updated review.

Sarris J.

Abstract This paper provides a 10-year update of the 2007 systematic review of herbal medicines studied in a broad range of psychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive, seasonal affective, bipolar, psychotic, phobic, somatoform, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorders. Ovid Medline, PubMed, and the Cochrane Library were searched for herbal medicines with both pharmacological and clinical evidence of psychotropic activity. This updated review now covers clinical trial evidence for 24 herbal medicines in 11 psychiatric disorders. High-quality evidence was found to exist for the use of Piper methysticum (Kava), Passiflora spp. (passionflower) and Galphimia glauca (galphimia) for anxiety disorders; and Hypericum perforatum (St John's wort) and Crocus sativus (saffron) for major depressive disorder. Other encouraging herbal medicines with preliminary evidence include Curcuma longa (turmeric) in depression, Withania somnifera (ashwagandha) in affective disorders, and Ginkgo biloba (ginkgo) as an adjunctive treatment in Schizophrenia. Although depression and anxiety are commonly researched, many other mental disorders still require further prospective investigation. Although the previous review suggested increasing the adjunctive study of select herbal medicines with pharmaceuticals, this was still only found to sparingly occur in research designs. Aside from this, future focus should involve the incorporation of more biomarker analysis, in particular pharmacogenomics, to determine genetic factors moderating response to herbal medicines. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Artigos Recentes

Phytother Res. 2018

Herbal medicine for depression and anxiety: A systematic review with assessment of potential psycho-oncologic relevance.

Yeung KS, Hernandez M, Mao JJ, Haviland I, Gubili J.

Abstract Anxiety and depression are prevalent among cancer patients, with significant negative impact. Many patients prefer herbs for symptom relief to conventional medications which have limited efficacy/side effects. We identified single-herb medicines that may warrant further study in cancer patients. Our search included PubMed, Allied and Complementary Medicine, Embase, and Cochrane databases, selecting only single-herb randomized controlled trials between 1996 and 2016 in any population for data extraction, excluding herbs with known potential for interactions with cancer treatments. One hundred articles involving 38 botanicals met our criteria. Among herbs most studied (≥6 randomized controlled trials each), lavender, passionflower, and saffron produced benefits comparable to standard anxiolytics and antidepressants. Black cohosh, chamomile, and chasteberry are also promising. Anxiety or depressive symptoms were measured in all studies, but not always as primary endpoints. Overall, 45% of studies reported positive findings with fewer adverse effects compared with conventional medications. Based on available data, black cohosh, chamomile, chasteberry, lavender, passionflower, and saffron appear useful in mitigating anxiety or depression with favorable risk-benefit profiles compared to standard treatments. These may benefit cancer patients by minimizing medication load and accompanying side effects. However, well-designed larger clinical trials are needed before these herbs can be recommended and to further assess their psycho-oncologic relevance. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Artigos Recentes

Phytother Res. 2018

Efficacy of artichoke leaf extract in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: A pilot double-blind randomized controlled trial.

Panahi Y, Kianpour P, Mohtashami R, Atkin SL, Butler AE, Jafari R, Badeli R, Sahebkar A.

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease worldwide and is potentially treatable, though there are few therapeutic agents available. Artichoke leaf extract (ALE) has shown potential as a hepatoprotective agent. This study sought to determine if ALE had therapeutic utility in patients with established NAFLD. In this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled parallel-group trial, 100 subjects with ultrasound-diagnosed NAFLD were randomized to either ALE 600 mg daily or placebo for a 2-month period. NAFLD response was assessed by liver ultrasound and serological markers including the aspartate aminotransferase (AST)/alanine aminotransferase (ALT) ratio and AST to platelet ratio index (APRI) score. Ninety patients completed the study (49 ALE and 41 placebo) with no side effects reported. ALE treatment compared with placebo: Doppler sonography showed increased hepatic vein flow (p < .001), reduced portal vein diameter (p < .001) and liver size (p < .001), reduction in serum ALT (p < .001) and AST (p < .001) levels, improvement in AST/ALT ratio and APRI scores (p < .01), and reduction in total bilirubin. ALE supplementation reduced total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride concentrations (p = .01). This study has shown beneficial effects of ALE supplementation on both ultrasound liver parameters and liver serum parameters (ALT, AST, APRI ratio, and total bilirubin) in patients with NAFLD. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. KEYWORDS: artichoke leaf extract (ALE); non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); phytochemical

Artigos Recentes

Phytother Res. 2018

Effects of artichoke leaf extract supplementation on metabolic parameters in women with metabolic syndrome: Influence of TCF7L2-rs7903146 and FTO-rs9939609 polymorphisms.

Rezazadeh K, Rahmati-Yamchi M, Mohammadnejad L, Ebrahimi-Mameghani M, Delazar A.

The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a multicomponent condition with a complex etiology involving genetic and environmental factors. Artichoke leaf extract (ALE) has shown favorable effects on lipid and glucose metabolism. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of ALE supplementation on metabolic parameters in women with MetS, using a nutrigenetics approach. In this double-blind randomized clinical trial, 50 women (aged 20-50 years) with MetS were randomly allocated into the two groups: "ALE group" (received 1,800 mg hydroalcoholic extract of artichoke as four tablets per day) and "placebo group" (received placebo consisted of corn starch, lactose, and avicel as four tablets per day) for 12 weeks. The biochemical and anthropometric parameters were determined before and after the intervention. The FTO-rs9939609 and the TCF7L2-rs7903146 polymorphisms were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. In carriers of A allele of the FTO-rs9939609, ALE supplementation resulted in a statistically significant decrease in serum triglyceride level compared with placebo (-19.11% vs. 10.83%; p < .05), with no other significant differences between the two groups. The TCF7L2-rs7903146 polymorphism showed no interaction with response to ALE (p > .05). These findings suggest that ALE supplementation may improve serum triglyceride level in A allele genotype of FTO-rs9939609 polymorphism in women with MetS. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. KEYWORDS: FTO; TCF7L2; artichoke leaf extract; metabolic syndrome; nutrigenetics

Artigos Recentes

Phytother Res. 2018

Experimental and clinical antihypertensive activity of Matricaria chamomilla extracts and their angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory activity.

Awaad AA, El-Meligy RM, Zain GM, Safhi AA, Al Qurain NA, Almoqren SS, Zain YM, Sesh Adri VD, Al-Saikhan FI.

Three different extracts of Matricaria chamomilla L. were evaluated for their antihypertensive activity, these extracts were total alcohol extract (Extract 1), oil extracted (Extract 2), and water lifted after oil extraction (Extract 3). Quantitative and Qualitative analyses were carried out for all extracts. The 3 extracts were proved to be safe for human use. A single oral administration of the plant extracts (200 mg/kg) decreases both systolic and diastolic blood pressure of normotensive rats after 1, 1.5, and 2 hr. Furthermore, groups treated with the evaluated extracts (100 & 200 mg/kg) or Captopril (20 mg/kg) showed a significant reduction in the elevated blood pressure and heart rate. Extract 3 showed the most antihypertensive activity. Serum biochemical parameters and lipid profile levels of treated groups were improved in comparison with induced-hypertensive untreated rats. In evaluation of oxidative damage parameters Glutathione and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in some organs, the investigated extracts or captopril restored the amount of reduced Glutathione in tissues in addition to an increase in the activity of the SOD after a significant depletion of SOD activity. In the clinical study, there was a significant dose dependent decrease in Systolic blood pressure, Diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate compared with their basal values in both normotensive and hypertensive human volunteers after oral administration of Matricaria chamomilla beverages. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. KEYWORDS: GSH; SOD; angiotensin-converting enzyme; biochemical parameters; blood pressure; heart rate; normotensive; qualitative analysis; quantitative determination

Artigos Recentes

Phytother Res. 2018

A systematic review of the anti-obesity and weight lowering effect of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and its mechanisms of action.

Ebrahimzadeh Attari V, Malek Mahdavi A, Javadivala Z, Mahluji S, Zununi Vahed S, Ostadrahimi A.

Recently, the beneficial effects of ginger on obesity is taken into consideration. Albeit, it seems that the anti-obesity effect of ginger and its mechanism of action has not yet been reviewed. Therefore, the aim of this study was to systematically review the effect of Zingiber officinale Roscoe on obesity management. Databases including PubMed, Scopus, Google scholar, and Science Direct were searched from 1995 until May 2017 using the definitive keywords. Searching was limited to articles with English language. All of the relevant human and animal studies and also in vitro studies were included. Review articles, abstract in congress, and also other varieties of ginger were excluded. Eligibility of included articles were evaluated by 3 reviewers, which also extracted data. Articles were critically assessed individually for possible risk of bias. Twenty-seven articles (6 in vitro, 17 animal, and 4 human studies) were reviewed. Most of the experimental studies supported the weight lowering effect of ginger extract or powder in obese animal models, whereas the results of the available limited clinical studies showed no changes or slight changes of anthropometric measurements and body composition in subjects with obesity. Ginger could modulate obesity through various potential mechanisms including increasing thermogenesis, increasing lipolysis, suppression of lipogenesis, inhibition of intestinal fat absorption, and controlling appetite. This review article provides some convincing evidence to support the efficacy of ginger in obesity management and demonstrates the importance of future clinical trials.

® FitoBula. 2019.

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